In this report:
|Seedcorn maggots on spinach.
SEEDCORN MAGGOTS Hylemya platura
Now is the time to be aware of the problem. Seedcorn maggot larvae feed on seeds and young seedlings of many crops (corn, beans, beets, peas, spinach, onions, cole crops, etc.). The first symptoms are usually poor germination (or failure of seedlings to emerge), or wilting transplants that have lost their roots to feeding. Symptoms can be difficult to distinguish from other problems, such as damping off due to Pythium or other soilborne fungi, or wireworm feeding. Also, symptoms are similar to damage caused by the cabbage or onion maggot, which I will discuss a bit later in the season when it is time to plant those crops.
If seedcorn maggots are the culprit, maggots can usually be found in the soil around and inside seedlings and seeds. The seedcorn maggot is yellow-white, 1/4 inch long, legless, with a wedge-shaped head. The adults look like small houseflies. Seedcorn maggots overwinter in the soil as pupae. In early spring, the adults emerge and lay eggs where they smell organic matter, such as compost or manure you added to a field, decays seeds, etc. The eggs hatch within 2-4 days at soil temperatures of 50F. Research has shown that peak emergence of the first three generations occur when 200, 600 and 1000 degree days have accumulated. Degree days are calculated on a daily basis by using the formula: (Max temp – Min temp)/2 – 39F. You can also refer to a handy calculator at http://www.weather.com/outlook/agriculture/growing-degree-days.
The first generation usually causes the most damage. The adults prefer to lay eggs in wet soil that is rich in organic matter. Crop seeds that germinate slowly are more vulnerable to attack. Crops that are planted in wet soil, or when the soil is simply too cool for them to germinate quickly, may be especially susceptible to damage. Last year my earliest planted spinach seedlings wilted within a week of transplanting, and when I pulled one up for examination I saw that it was swarming with maggots.
By the time you see damage, it is too late to control the problem using either cultural or chemical methods. Prevention is the key.
- Avoid seeding fields (especially wet fields) too early. Seeds germinate more quickly and are less vulnerable in warmer soils.
- Disk and incorporate organic matter (such as a cover crop) at least 4 weeks before seeding to give it time to break down and make it less attractive to the flies.
- Avoid applying manure or unfinished compost in late fall or early spring to heavy soils that you might want to plant early. Lighter, well-drained, sandy soils are less likely to have problems (because they warm up faster than others).
- Rowcovers can help – but only if the maggot flies are coming from elsewhere. Damage can occur if the flies have overwintered in the soil and thus end up underneath the rowcovers.
- If you need to replant, wait at least 5 days if maggots that you find are a quarter inch long; if they are smaller than that, wait at least 10 days to make sure they have pupated and will not damage the new seeds.
|Cutworms near broccoli.
CUTWORMS (many species)
Cultural Control: Since most species lay their eggs in the late summer/fall on vegetation, keeping fields clean of weeds and crops in the fall helps. Of course, this goes counter to the recommendations to keep the soil covered cropped, so it is a management decision based on how bad the problem has been. Fall plowing exposes larvae to birds. Cultivating fields in the spring just after vegetation has appeared and grown a few inches, and keeping it clean cultivated can starve the cutworms out before the peas go in. But, in must areas this is not practical because crops need to be planted.
Materials Approved for Organic Production: Entomopathogenic nematodes show good efficacy when environmental conditions are favorable. Steinernema carpocapsae has been shown to be very effective against cutworms, although reports are not specifically in pea production. Success with nematodes depends on proper application methods. Be sure to follow the instructions from the supplier carefully. A few suppliers of these insect-attacking nematodes are The Green Spot ( www.greenmethods.com), IPM Laboratories ( www.ipmlabs.com), and ARBICO ( www.arbico.com).
Baits: Spinosad or Bt will kill the caterpillars, but getting the pest to consume the insecticide as a sprayed on material before significant damage is done is not likely. However, farmers have reported good results using these materials in baits. The bait is spread on the ground near the plants, or prior to planting to clean out an area.
- Spinosad - Seduce (OMRI Listed) is a new commercial bait . I have no experience yet with this, so if any of you try it, please let me know what you think.
- Bt - A bait made from Bt is often recommended and has received good reports from farmers. This is a method of use of Bt that is not described on the label. This off-label use is permitted by EPA under FIFRA 2ee, but growers should check with their state pesticide regulators about their state regulations. Make the bait by mixing the highest concentration solution of Bt allowed on the label and then mixing in a bit of molasses and alfalfa meal or bran. Then dampen this mix if necessary. Spread the bait along the planted or planned rows in the evening.
|Common asparagus beetles.
|Asparagus beetle eggs.
(Some of this came from the UMass. Vegetable Notes newsletter)
Frost: One of the very first questions I received when I began working for MOFGA many, many years ago turned into an argument. Not a good start, huh?. The guy who called would not believe me that asparagus is frost sensitive. His spears had turned dark, wrinkled and water-soaked and I don't know if I ever convinced him. Perhaps he is reading this.
Asparagus, despite its status as a primo early season vegetable, is highly sensitive to frost, ranking alongside cucumber, snap beans, eggplant and tomatoes in the ‘most susceptible’ category. When frosted, spears appear slightly darker green, water-soaked and break off easily. Thawed spears become mushy. Soft-rotting bacteria can enter the damaged tissue. New spears take several more days to emerge, but will. Temperatures below 33 degrees Fahrenheit may damage the spears.
Beetles: Common asparagus beetles tend to arrive in mid May. The spotted asparagus beetle generally becomes active somewhat later in the spring, and in my experience is less common (I guess with the names that is not a surprise). These two beetles are closely related and have similar life cycles but it is the common asparagus beetle that is most damaging to the cut spears.
Common asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparigi) is blue-black, shiny, smooth and about 6 to 9 mm (1/4 inch) long, with three large yellow, squarish spots with red margins along each wing cover (see picture). Eggs are black, laid standing on end in rows along the spears, and hatch in 3-8 days (see picture below). Larvae are wrinkled, plump, hump-backed, and dull gray with black head and legs. They grow up to 1/3 inch. These larvae feed in spears and in ferns. The larvae do the most damage, and eggs and larval damage makes spears unmarketable. Larval feeding can cause sever defoliation and weaken the stand. When full grown, larvae drop to the soil and pupate underground. New adults emerge in July, feed in ferns, and by September are looking for overwintering sites.
Spotted asparagus beetle (Crioceris duodecimpunctata) is reddish orange or tan, with six black spots on each wing cover (hence its other name, 12-spotted asparagus beetle). Eggs are greenish, glued singly on their sides to leaves. Eggs are laid on fronds, not on spears. Larvae are similar to those described above, but are orange colored, and feed almost entirely inside the berries so they affect seed production but do not hurt the plants.
Winter habitat: Both species spend the winter as adult beetles either in field borders or within the asparagus field. Sheltered sites such as under bark or in the stems of old plants are preferred. Some burrow into the soil.
Scouting: Early in the season, look for adult beetles, for feeding damage and for eggs laid on spears. Michigan State recommends a treatment threshold of 5-10% of the plants infested or 1-2% of the spears with eggs or damage.
Cultural controls: During harvest, you can greatly reduce the population by harvesting ALL of the spears every harvest day. Pick the field clean to reduce the number of stems where eggs will survive long enough to hatch or larvae can feed and grow up into summer-generation beetles. In the fall remove all of the crop residue and other refuse nearby that may provide shelter for adults over winter, by disking lightly (avoid crown damage) or burning crop stalks and fronds. Maintaining a clean environment in the fall will force beetles to seek shelter outside the field or burrow in the soil, where many predators reside.
Biocontrol: The most important natural enemy of common asparagus beetle is a tiny parasitic wasp (Tetrastichus asparagi) that attacks the egg stage. Wasps kill eggs by feeding on them (sucking them dry), and also lay their own eggs inside the beetle eggs. The immature wasps grow inside the beetle larvae, killing them when they pupate. Studies have found >50% of eggs killed by feeding and half of the surviving larvae parasitized. Providing a nearby nectar source such as umbelliferous flowers may enhance wasp populations.
Monitoring and chemical control: Scout fields regularly. You may want to treat spears if >10% of the plants are infested with beetles or 2% have eggs or damage. The daily harvest makes treatment difficult because few want to spray anything close to harvest time. Organic options on spears include Surround WP as a repellent, or Entrust.
- R Hazzard. References: Handbook of Vegetable Pests by John Capinera; 2008-2009 New England Vegetable Management Guide; Eric Sideman, MOFGA; Brian Caldwell, Cornell University